The island in the shape of boot has two grabens lying on it, one from northeast to southwest and the other from northwest to southeast. The two grabens cross each other in the middle of the island and divide it into four terraces. Therefore the island is nicknamed ‘belly-cut island’ and worth geological research. Located (120°21’55”E, 22°19’48”N) south of the mouth of Kaoping River, about 8 nautical miles southwest of Donggang Township and about 18 nautical miles south-southwest of Kaohsiung City, Liuqiu is the only one of Taiwan’s 14 offshore islands that is made of coral and looks like a single boot floating on the Taiwan Strait.
Although Liuqiu, the only coral island of Taiwan’s offshore islands, is covered with limestone, the coral substances can be easily found anywhere. The coral creatures lived together and secreted calcium substances which deposited and then composed coral reefs. Generation after generation, coral creatures adhered to the dead ones and gradually made up coral reefs with limestone. The well known tourist attractions composed of coral with limestone on the island are Black Devil Cave, Beauty Cave, Wild Boar Trench, etc. The coral with limestone on Liuqiu is similar to that of Fengsan. The soil on the four terraces of the island look red due to plenty of the remains of iron oxide and silicon oxide after being weathered for a long period of time. Therefore, the land is dry and infertile and not suitable for planting.
Liuqiu’s climate is dry and warm. Its highest average temperature is 27.9°C in July and lowest average temperature is 17°C in March. The average annual rainfall is about 1000 mm. The maximum average monthly rainfall is 2657 mm in June and the minimum average monthly rainfall is 1.9 mm in December. In typhoon season during summer and fall, Liuqiu undergoes the highest frequency of being hit by typhoon in all of Taiwan’s islands. Therefore, the islander takes the threat of typhoon, such as strong winds and huge waves, into consideration before constructing buildings and facilities.